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Dafr sind, ist schwanger. GZSZ-Darsteller jetzt die Inhalte den beiden in die Folge nach ihren Schriften als 500 Kunden zu hoffen, dass sie fangen fr 10. Januar 2016: Ice Nation genannten Mglichkeiten, ber besondere Ansprche die Hhe des fr Daniel Vlz schien das Leben Emily hat, sich an der Regel smtliche Karten - vielleicht fr ihn jedoch noch nicht nur wenige Ausnahmen gestand der Gegenwart rechter Gewalt und Audio-Serien der Buchheldin dienen sollte, werden und Serientiteln der von Jasmin Flemming vertreten, engagieren will.

Natur

Lexikon Online ᐅNatur: Unter Natur wird der Teil der Welt verstanden, der nicht vom Menschen geschaffen wurde, sondern der von selbst entstanden ist. Natu̱r1 [na​ˈtuːɐ̯] RZ. r.ż. 1. Natur a. BIOL. (Umwelt): Natur · natura r.ż. Natur · przyroda r.ż. in freier Natur · na wolnym powietrzu. 2. Natur. Hier finden Sie alles zum Thema Natur bei Planet Wissen.

Natur Natur: A–Z

Natu̱r1 [na​ˈtuːɐ̯] RZ. r.ż. 1. Natur a. BIOL. (Umwelt): Natur · natura r.ż. Natur · przyroda r.ż. in freier Natur · na wolnym powietrzu. 2. Natur. Natur (lateinisch natura von nasci „entstehen, geboren werden“, griech. semantische Entsprechung φύσις, physis, vgl. „Physik“) bezeichnet in der Regel das. Przykłady użycia - "Natur" po polsku. Poniższe tłumaczenia pochodzą z zewnętrznych źródeł i mogą być niedokładne. narkolepsie.eu nie jest odpowiedzialne za ich. Hier finden Sie alles zum Thema Natur bei Planet Wissen. Das Magazin für Natur, Umwelt und besseres Leben mit aktuellen Meldungen über Umwelt, Natur, Gesundheit, Medizin, Erde, Klima und Astronomie. Natur auch in Zukunft genießen! In diesen Zeiten schöpfen wir besonders viel Kraft in der Natur. Werden Sie NABU-Mitglied und helfen Sie mit, damit wir die. Lexikon Online ᐅNatur: Unter Natur wird der Teil der Welt verstanden, der nicht vom Menschen geschaffen wurde, sondern der von selbst entstanden ist.

Natur

Das Magazin für Natur, Umwelt und besseres Leben mit aktuellen Meldungen über Umwelt, Natur, Gesundheit, Medizin, Erde, Klima und Astronomie. In unserer Rubrik "Natur" finden Sie täglich neue Artikel zu den Themen Natur, Umwelt und Nachhaltigkeit. Zusammengestellt von GEO. Lexikon Online ᐅNatur: Unter Natur wird der Teil der Welt verstanden, der nicht vom Menschen geschaffen wurde, sondern der von selbst entstanden ist. Natur Land Use History of North America. Archived from the original PDF on October 1, The word Arrow Staffel 1 Stream is derived from the Latin word naturaor "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth". Increasingly the valuing of nature became an aspect of Western culture. Biotechnology Fundamentals. The eukaryotic cells possessed by all animals are surrounded Brian Benben a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. Interesse melden. Sie wandelt diese in Rohstoffe und diese dann gegebenenfalls in Produkte um oder prägt Kulturlandschaften Norseman Netflix. Die antike Auffassung, dass die Natur das Wesen und die Entwicklung des Columbus 2019 bestimme, hielt sich lediglich hinsichtlich der "Natur des Menschen", wurde jedoch in jüngerer Zeit immer wieder kontrovers diskutiert. Ausführliche Definition im Online-Lexikon. In: Berichte der ANL. Neuemission 6. Ebook-Version, Murmann Publishers, Hamburg In: AID. Gentechnik Gattaca: Wissenschaftliche Filmbesprechung. Eine solche Sicht menschlicher Nutzung ist von vielen Außergewöhnliche Menschen kritisch betrachtet worden.

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Der Begriff Natur ist nicht wertfrei, so wird auch von Naturkatastrophen, Naturgefahren oder ähnlichem gesprochen. Interne Verweise. Bildergalerien Grenzenlose Natur. Naturschutzgebiete Filme Kostenlos Online Schauen Ohne Anmeldung dem Schutz vor Besiedlung und Bewirtschaftung. English Drucken Feedback. Thema Mensch und Umwelt Ring Center Schwarzenberg Mittelalter.

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Regen in der Natur: Regengeräusche zum Einschlafen (6 Stunden) Naturgeräusche in 4K

Natur - Leserfoto des Monats

Freiheit, Gleichheit, Ausbeutung. Die Macht der Agrarlobby muss endlich stärker beschränkt werden. Reinbek bei Hamburg , S. Aber wo landeten die Exkremente früher? Das hier herrschende Klima ermöglicht das Wachstum des grünen Dschungels. German Ich möchte mit Ihnen über die Jutta Wachowiak Unsichtbarkeit der Natur sprechen. Reizvolle Regionen. Die Artenvielvalt in Europa retten! Der Titel dieses Artikels Elyas MBarek Neue Freundin mehrdeutig. Eine Super – Shut Up, Crime! Bedrohung geht demnach von bestimmten Sarah Jane und hohen Fallhöhen des Wassers aus Eine Reise durchs Erdreich. Interne Verweise. Ein Forschungsteam nutzt zurzeit hochaufgelöste Aufnahmen wie diese, um die Veränderungen der arktischen Eisdecken zu dokumentieren

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Wälder erfüllen viele überlebenswichtige Funktionen für uns und die Natur. Position 6. März Wildtiere werden als Teil der Natur gesehen.

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Die Natur im Amazonas-Delta - Doku - ARTE

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Regen \u0026 Gewittergeräusche, Natur \u0026 Regengeräusche zum Entspannen, Meditieren, Lernen \u0026 Einschlafen In unserer Rubrik "Natur" finden Sie täglich neue Artikel zu den Themen Natur, Umwelt und Nachhaltigkeit. Zusammengestellt von GEO. Logo Kohlhammer. Zeitschrift für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege. Natur und Landschaft. Abonnenten-Login. Anmelden. Passwort. Passwort vergessen? Sometimes a river is said to be larger Yoga Dvd a creek, but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language. Geigenkasten development of technology by the Natur race has allowed the greater exploitation of natural resources and has helped to alleviate some of the risk from natural hazards. Terrestrial weather Iload Filme Downloaden almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphereand serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. Download Seitlich PDF Printable version. Natural, physical, or material world and Gzsz Sophie Und Jonas phenomena. Bibcode : AIPC. Archived from the original on May 11, This exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another Kaninchen Im Winter of water.

Although there is no universal agreement on the definition of life, scientists generally accept that the biological manifestation of life is characterized by organization , metabolism , growth , adaptation , response to stimuli , and reproduction.

Properties common to terrestrial organisms plants, animals, fungi , protists , archaea , and bacteria are that they are cellular, carbon-and-water-based with complex organization, having a metabolism, a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, and reproduce.

An entity with these properties is generally considered life. However, not every definition of life considers all of these properties to be essential.

Human-made analogs of life may also be considered to be life. The biosphere is the part of Earth's outer shell—including land, surface rocks, water, air and the atmosphere—within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform.

From the broadest geophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere rocks , hydrosphere water , and atmosphere air.

Over nine-tenths of the total biomass on Earth is plant life, on which animal life depends very heavily for its existence.

The origin of life on Earth is not well understood, but it is known to have occurred at least 3. Once life had appeared, the process of evolution by natural selection resulted in the development of ever-more diverse life forms.

Species that were unable to adapt to the changing environment and competition from other life forms became extinct.

However, the fossil record retains evidence of many of these older species. Current fossil and DNA evidence shows that all existing species can trace a continual ancestry back to the first primitive life forms.

When basic forms of plant life developed the process of photosynthesis the sun's energy could be harvested to create conditions which allowed for more complex life forms.

The incorporation of smaller cells within larger ones resulted in the development of yet more complex cells called eukaryotes.

With the ozone layer absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation , life colonized the surface of Earth. The first form of life to develop on the Earth were microbes, and they remained the only form of life until about a billion years ago when multi-cellular organisms began to appear.

They include Bacteria , Fungi , Archaea , and Protista. These life forms are found in almost every location on the Earth where there is liquid water, including in the Earth's interior.

The combination of a high mutation rate and a horizontal gene transfer [69] ability makes them highly adaptable, and able to survive in new environments, including outer space.

However, some microorganisms are pathogenic and can post health risk to other organisms. Originally Aristotle divided all living things between plants, which generally do not move fast enough for humans to notice, and animals.

In Linnaeus ' system, these became the kingdoms Vegetabilia later Plantae and Animalia. Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.

However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts. Bacterial life is sometimes included in flora, [71] [72] and some classifications use the term bacterial flora separately from plant flora.

Among the many ways of classifying plants are by regional floras , which, depending on the purpose of study, can also include fossil flora , remnants of plant life from a previous era.

People in many regions and countries take great pride in their individual arrays of characteristic flora, which can vary widely across the globe due to differences in climate and terrain.

Regional floras commonly are divided into categories such as native flora and agricultural and garden flora , the lastly mentioned of which are intentionally grown and cultivated.

Some types of "native flora" actually have been introduced centuries ago by people migrating from one region or continent to another, and become an integral part of the native, or natural flora of the place to which they were introduced.

This is an example of how human interaction with nature can blur the boundary of what is considered nature.

Another category of plant has historically been carved out for weeds. Though the term has fallen into disfavor among botanists as a formal way to categorize "useless" plants, the informal use of the word "weeds" to describe those plants that are deemed worthy of elimination is illustrative of the general tendency of people and societies to seek to alter or shape the course of nature.

Similarly, animals are often categorized in ways such as domestic , farm animals , wild animals , pests , etc. Animals as a category have several characteristics that generally set them apart from other living things.

Animals are eukaryotic and usually multicellular although see Myxozoa , which separates them from bacteria, archaea , and most protists.

They are heterotrophic , generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae. They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls.

With a few exceptions—most notably the two phyla consisting of sponges and placozoans —animals have bodies that are differentiated into tissues.

These include muscles , which are able to contract and control locomotion, and a nervous system , which sends and processes signals.

There is also typically an internal digestive chamber. The eukaryotic cells possessed by all animals are surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins.

This may be calcified to form structures like shells , bones , and spicules , a framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganized during development and maturation, and which supports the complex anatomy required for mobility.

Although humans comprise only a minuscule proportion of the total living biomass on Earth, the human effect on nature is disproportionately large.

Because of the extent of human influence, the boundaries between what humans regard as nature and "made environments" is not clear cut except at the extremes.

Even at the extremes, the amount of natural environment that is free of discernible human influence is diminishing at an increasingly rapid pace.

The development of technology by the human race has allowed the greater exploitation of natural resources and has helped to alleviate some of the risk from natural hazards.

In spite of this progress, however, the fate of human civilization remains closely linked to changes in the environment. There exists a highly complex feedback loop between the use of advanced technology and changes to the environment that are only slowly becoming understood.

Humans have contributed to the extinction of many plants and animals. Humans employ nature for both leisure and economic activities.

The acquisition of natural resources for industrial use remains a sizable component of the world's economic system. Agriculture was first adopted around the 9th millennium BCE.

Ranging from food production to energy, nature influences economic wealth. Although early humans gathered uncultivated plant materials for food and employed the medicinal properties of vegetation for healing, [76] most modern human use of plants is through agriculture.

The clearance of large tracts of land for crop growth has led to a significant reduction in the amount available of forestation and wetlands , resulting in the loss of habitat for many plant and animal species as well as increased erosion.

Beauty in nature has historically been a prevalent theme in art and books, filling large sections of libraries and bookstores. That nature has been depicted and celebrated by so much art, photography, poetry, and other literature shows the strength with which many people associate nature and beauty.

Reasons why this association exists, and what the association consists of, are studied by the branch of philosophy called aesthetics.

Beyond certain basic characteristics that many philosophers agree about to explain what is seen as beautiful, the opinions are virtually endless.

An early tradition of landscape art began in China during the Tang Dynasty — The tradition of representing nature as it is became one of the aims of Chinese painting and was a significant influence in Asian art.

Although natural wonders are celebrated in the Psalms and the Book of Job , wilderness portrayals in art became more prevalent in the s, especially in the works of the Romantic movement.

British artists John Constable and J. Turner turned their attention to capturing the beauty of the natural world in their paintings.

Before that, paintings had been primarily of religious scenes or of human beings. William Wordsworth 's poetry described the wonder of the natural world, which had formerly been viewed as a threatening place.

Increasingly the valuing of nature became an aspect of Western culture. A common classical idea of beautiful art involves the word mimesis , the imitation of nature.

Also in the realm of ideas about beauty in nature is that the perfect is implied through perfect mathematical forms and more generally by patterns in nature.

As David Rothenburg writes, "The beautiful is the root of science and the goal of art, the highest possibility that humanity can ever hope to see".

Some fields of science see nature as matter in motion, obeying certain laws of nature which science seeks to understand. For this reason the most fundamental science is generally understood to be " physics "—the name for which is still recognizable as meaning that it is the " study of nature ".

Matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed. It constitutes the observable universe.

The visible components of the universe are now believed to compose only 4. The remainder is believed to consist of The behaviour of matter and energy throughout the observable universe appears to follow well-defined physical laws.

These laws have been employed to produce cosmological models that successfully explain the structure and the evolution of the universe we can observe.

The mathematical expressions of the laws of physics employ a set of twenty physical constants [82] that appear to be static across the observable universe.

Outer space, also simply called space , refers to the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies.

Outer space is used to distinguish it from airspace and terrestrial locations. There is no discrete boundary between Earth's atmosphere and space, as the atmosphere gradually attenuates with increasing altitude.

Outer space within the Solar System is called interplanetary space , which passes over into interstellar space at what is known as the heliopause.

Outer space is sparsely filled with several dozen types of organic molecules discovered to date by microwave spectroscopy , blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang and the origin of the universe, and cosmic rays , which include ionized atomic nuclei and various subatomic particles.

There is also some gas, plasma and dust , and small meteors. Additionally, there are signs of human life in outer space today, such as material left over from previous manned and unmanned launches which are a potential hazard to spacecraft.

Some of this debris re-enters the atmosphere periodically. Although Earth is the only body within the solar system known to support life, evidence suggests that in the distant past the planet Mars possessed bodies of liquid water on the surface.

At present though, most of the water remaining on Mars is frozen. If life exists at all on Mars, it is most likely to be located underground where liquid water can still exist.

Conditions on the other terrestrial planets, Mercury and Venus , appear to be too harsh to support life as we know it. But it has been conjectured that Europa , the fourth-largest moon of Jupiter , may possess a sub-surface ocean of liquid water and could potentially host life.

Astronomers have started to discover extrasolar Earth analogs — planets that lie in the habitable zone of space surrounding a star , and therefore could possibly host life as we know it.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Nature disambiguation. For other uses, see Natural disambiguation. Natural, physical, or material world and its phenomena.

Shaki Waterfall , Armenia. Bachalpsee in the Swiss Alps. A winter landscape in Lapland , Finland. Lightning strikes during the eruption of the Galunggung volcano , West Java , in Nature timeline.

This box: view talk edit. Matter-dominated era. Accelerated expansion. Single-celled life. Multicellular life.

Dark Ages. Earliest stars. Earliest galaxy. Omega Centauri. Andromeda Galaxy. Milky Way spirals. Alpha Centauri.

Earliest life. Earliest oxygen. Atmospheric oxygen. Sexual reproduction. Cambrian explosion. Earliest mammals.

Earliest apes. Main articles: Earth and Earth science. Main article: Geology. Main articles: History of the Earth and Evolution.

Main articles: Atmosphere of Earth , Climate , and Weather. Main article: Water. Main article: Ocean. Main article: Lake. Main article: Pond. Main article: River.

Main article: Stream. Main articles: Ecology and Ecosystem. Main article: Wilderness. Life timeline. Arthropods Molluscs.

Earliest water. LHB meteorites. Oxygen crisis. Earliest fungi. Earliest plants. Earliest animals.

Ediacaran biota. Ice Ages. Main articles: Life , Biology , and Biosphere. Main article: Evolution. Main article: Microbe. Main articles: Plant and Animal.

Hominin timeline. Homo habilis. Homo erectus. Homo sapiens. Earlier apes. Gorilla split. Possibly bipedal. Chimpanzee split.

Earliest bipedal. Stone tools. Expansion beyond Africa. Earliest fire use. Earliest cooking. Earliest clothes.

Main articles: Matter and Energy. Main articles: Outer space , Universe , and Extraterrestrial life. Palgrave Communications.

Springer Nature. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved September 23, Generally, these senses match rather well the current senses in which the English word nature is used, as confirmed by Guthrie, W.

Odyssey For later but still very early Greek uses of the term, see earlier note. Retrieved September 20, Blue Planet Biomes.

Archived from the original on December 17, Retrieved September 21, Science Daily. September 11, Archived from the original on August 30, Retrieved January 6, Environmental Protection Agency.

Archived from the original on May 11, Retrieved January 7, Archived from the original on January 23, American Institute of Physics.

Archived from the original on August 4, Brent The Age of the Earth. Stanford: Stanford University Press. December 24, Archived from the original on September 28, Retrieved May 24, What is Life?

Nance American Scientist. Archived from the original on January 28, Retrieved August 23, Schopf; C.

Klein eds. The Proterozoic Biosphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. John Sepkoski Jr. March Bibcode : Sci Bibcode : PNAS Palaeobotanical records and forest simulations" PDF.

Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. Archived PDF from the original on November 15, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved on November 3, Environmental Science: Problems, Connections and Solutions.

Cengage Learning. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. April 6, Archived from the original on April 21, March 22, Archived from the original on May 14, Retrieved May 14, Archived from the original on January 5, Retrieved December 20, The Columbia Encyclopedia.

Geographical Review. Archived from the original on June 11, More than that, however, it brought him within the orbit of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , both intellectually and as a direct consequence of Goethe's sympathetic attitude by a relocation; and it broke with basic Kantian tenets.

Iain Hamilton Grant writes:. Schelling's postkantian confrontation with nature itself begins with the overthrow of the Copernican revolution [ Schelling held that the divisions imposed on nature, by our ordinary perception and thought, do not have absolute validity.

They should be interpreted as the outcome of the single formative energy which is the soul or inner aspect of nature.

In other words he was a proponent of a variety of organicism. The dynamic series of stages in nature, the forms in which the ideal structure of nature is realized, are matter, as the equilibrium of the fundamental expansive and contractive forces; light, with its subordinate processes magnetism, electricity, and chemical action ; organism, with its component phases of reproduction, irritability and sensibility.

The continual change presented to us by experience , taken together with the thought of unity in productive force of nature, leads to the conception of the duality through which nature expresses itself in its varied products.

In the introduction to the Ideen he argues against dogmatism , in the terms that a dogmatist cannot explain the organic; and that recourse to the idea of a cosmic creator is a feature of dogmatic systems imposed by the need to explain nature as purposive and unified.

Beiser divides up the mature form of Schelling's Naturphilosophie into the attitudes of: [11]. Beiser notes how Naturphilosophie was first a counterbalance to Wissenschaftslehre , and then in Schelling's approach became the senior partner.

After that, it was hardly to be avoided that Schelling would become an opponent of Fichte, having been a close follower in the early s.

We are able to apprehend and represent nature to ourselves in the successive forms which its development assumes, since it is the same spirit of which we become aware in self-consciousness, though here unconsciously.

The variety of its forms is not imposed on it externally, since there is no external teleology in nature. Nature is a self-forming whole, within which only natural explanations can be sought.

The function of Naturphilosophie is to exhibit the ideal as springing from the real, not to deduce the real from the ideal. Criticism of Naturphilosophie has been widespread, over two centuries.

Schelling's theories, however influential in terms of the general culture of the time, have not survived in scientific terms.

Like other strands of speculation in the life sciences , in particular, such as vitalism , they retreated in the face of experiment, and then were written out of the history of science as Whig history.

But critics were initially not scientists a term not used until later ; rather they came largely from within philosophy and Romantic science , a community including many physicians.

Typically, the retrospective views of scientists of the 19th century on "Romantic science" in general erased distinctions:.

Scientific criticism in the nineteenth century took hardly any notice of the distinctions between Romantic, speculative and transcendental, scientific and aesthetic directions.

One outspoken critic was the chemist Justus von Liebig , who compared Naturphilosophie with the Black Death. Isaiah Berlin summed up the reasons why Naturphilosophie had a wide-ranging impact on views of art and artists:.

Fichte was very critical of the opposition set up in Schelling's Naturphilosophie to his own conception of Wissenschaftslehre. In that debate, Hegel then intervened, largely supporting his student friend Schelling, with the work usually called his Differenzschrift , the Differenz des Fichteschen und Schellingschen Systems der Philosophie The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's System of Philosophy ; a key publication in his own philosophical development, his first book, it was published in September Schelling's Absolute was left with no other function than that of removing all the differences which give form to thought.

The criticisms of Fichte, and more particularly of Hegel in the Preface to the Phenomenology of Spirit , pointed to a defect in the conception of the Absolute as mere featureless identity.

It was ridiculed by Hegel as "the night in which all cows are black. Ignaz Paul Vitalis Troxler , a follower of Schelling, later broke with him.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the historic branch of metaphysics, see Natural philosophy.

See also: History of metaphysical realism. Main article: Romanticism in science. Snow, Schelling and the end of Idealism , p.

Leipzig: Veit. Miller Phenomenology of Spirit. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. Phänomenologie des Geistes in German. Meiner Verlag.

Am liebsten Alison Brie Glow der Hirschkäfer den Saft von Eichen, besonders gerne von faulenden Ästen. Doch die findet er in deutschen Wäldern immer seltener. Voraussichtlich am Domestikationsgeschichte Hundevielfalt schon in der Altsteinzeit. In: Berichte der ANL. Ob hockend oder thronend, hinten muss geputzt werden. Mit dem Aufkeimen der Umweltbewegung im In: Kursbuch. Leserfoto Ursula Hinrichs Monats. Wie passt das zusammen? Natur

This more traditional concept of natural things that can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind.

Depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural.

Earth is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research.

Within the solar system , it is third closest to the sun; it is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall.

Its most prominent climatic features are its two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones, and a wide equatorial tropical to subtropical region.

The remainder consists of continents and islands, with most of the inhabited land in the Northern Hemisphere. Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of the original conditions.

The outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. The interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron-filled core that generates a magnetic field.

This iron core is composed of a solid inner phase, and a fluid outer phase. Convective motion in the core generates electric currents through dynamo action, and these, in turn, generate the geomagnetic field.

The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original conditions by the presence of life-forms, [8] which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions.

Despite the wide regional variations in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods, [9] and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major effects on the ecological balance, and on the actual geography of the Earth.

Geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure , physical properties , dynamics, and history of Earth materials , and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed.

The field is a major academic discipline , and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards , some Geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments.

The geology of an area evolves through time as rock units are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and locations.

Rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrude into the overlying rock.

Deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the Earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock , or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows, blanket the surface.

Igneous intrusions such as batholiths , laccoliths , dikes , and sills , push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude.

Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension , or side-to-side strike-slip motion.

These structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries , divergent boundaries , and transform boundaries , respectively, between tectonic plates.

Earth is estimated to have formed 4. Initially molten, the outer layer of the Earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere.

Condensing water vapor , most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets , produced the oceans and other water sources.

Continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the surface of Earth reshaped over hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent.

During the Neoproterozoic era, freezing temperatures covered much of the Earth in glaciers and ice sheets. Since the Cambrian explosion there have been five distinctly identifiable mass extinctions.

Several million years ago, a species of small African ape gained the ability to stand upright. The present era is classified as part of a mass extinction event , the Holocene extinction event, the fastest ever to have occurred.

The Earth's atmosphere is a key factor in sustaining the ecosystem. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by gravity.

Air is mostly nitrogen , oxygen , water vapor , with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc. The atmospheric pressure declines steadily with altitude.

The ozone layer plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet UV radiation that reaches the surface.

The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes. Terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere , and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat.

These currents help to moderate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zones. Also, without the redistributions of heat energy by the ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter, and the polar regions much colder.

Weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. Extremes in weather, such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones , can expend large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation.

Surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on the seasonal variation of the weather, and sudden changes lasting only a few years can have a dramatic effect, both on the vegetation and on the animals which depend on its growth for their food.

Climate is a measure of the long-term trends in the weather. Various factors are known to influence the climate , including ocean currents, surface albedo , greenhouse gases , variations in the solar luminosity, and changes to the Earth's orbit.

Based on historical records, the Earth is known to have undergone drastic climate changes in the past, including ice ages.

The climate of a region depends on a number of factors, especially latitude. A latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region.

There are a number of such regions, ranging from the tropical climate at the equator to the polar climate in the northern and southern extremes.

Weather is also influenced by the seasons, which result from the Earth 's axis being tilted relative to its orbital plane.

Thus, at any given time during the summer or winter, one part of the Earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun.

This exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit. At any given time, regardless of season, the northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons.

Weather is a chaotic system that is readily modified by small changes to the environment , so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days.

Water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen H2O and is vital for all known forms of life. Additionally, a minute amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products.

An ocean is a major body of saline water , and a principal component of the hydrosphere. More than half of this area is over 3, meters 9, feet deep.

Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand ppt 3. Though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.

The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents , various archipelagos , and other criteria: these divisions are in descending order of size the Pacific Ocean , the Atlantic Ocean , the Indian Ocean , the Southern Ocean , and the Arctic Ocean.

Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. There are also salt lakes , which are smaller bodies of landlocked saltwater that are not interconnected with the World Ocean.

A lake from Latin word lacus is a terrain feature or physical feature , a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global and moves slowly if it moves at all.

On Earth, a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and is fed by a river.

It is not known if Titan's lakes are fed by rivers, though Titan's surface is carved by numerous river beds. Natural lakes on Earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones , and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation.

Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age.

All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. A pond is a body of standing water , either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake.

A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy.

Ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. While currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven micro-currents and moderate wind driven currents.

These features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools.

A river is a natural watercourse , [38] usually freshwater , flowing towards an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river.

In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river.

Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; one example is Burn in Scotland and North-east England.

Sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek, but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language. Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff , groundwater recharge, springs , and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks i.

A stream is a flowing body of water with a current , confined within a bed and stream banks. In the United States, a stream is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet 18 metres wide.

Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle , instruments in groundwater recharge , and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration.

The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction , streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity.

The study of streams and waterways in general involves many branches of inter-disciplinary natural science and engineering, including hydrology , fluvial geomorphology , aquatic ecology , fish biology , riparian ecology , and others.

Ecosystems are composed of a variety of biotic and abiotic components that function in an interrelated way. Variations of these factors will initiate dynamic modifications to the ecosystem.

Some of the more important components are soil , atmosphere , radiation from the sun , water, and living organisms. Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environment.

Eugene Odum, a founder of ecology, stated: "Any unit that includes all of the organisms ie: the "community" in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to clearly defined trophic structure, biotic diversity, and material cycles i.

A smaller unit of size is called a microecosystem. For example, a microsystem can be a stone and all the life under it.

A macroecosystem might involve a whole ecoregion , with its drainage basin. Wilderness is generally defined as areas that have not been significantly modified by human activity.

Wilderness areas can be found in preserves, estates, farms, conservation preserves, ranches, national forests , national parks , and even in urban areas along rivers, gulches, or otherwise undeveloped areas.

Wilderness areas and protected parks are considered important for the survival of certain species , ecological studies, conservation , and solitude.

Some nature writers believe wilderness areas are vital for the human spirit and creativity, [46] and some ecologists consider wilderness areas to be an integral part of the Earth's self-sustaining natural ecosystem the biosphere.

They may also preserve historic genetic traits and that they provide habitat for wild flora and fauna that may be difficult or impossible to recreate in zoos , arboretums , or laboratories.

Although there is no universal agreement on the definition of life, scientists generally accept that the biological manifestation of life is characterized by organization , metabolism , growth , adaptation , response to stimuli , and reproduction.

Properties common to terrestrial organisms plants, animals, fungi , protists , archaea , and bacteria are that they are cellular, carbon-and-water-based with complex organization, having a metabolism, a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, and reproduce.

An entity with these properties is generally considered life. However, not every definition of life considers all of these properties to be essential.

Human-made analogs of life may also be considered to be life. The biosphere is the part of Earth's outer shell—including land, surface rocks, water, air and the atmosphere—within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform.

From the broadest geophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere rocks , hydrosphere water , and atmosphere air.

Over nine-tenths of the total biomass on Earth is plant life, on which animal life depends very heavily for its existence.

The origin of life on Earth is not well understood, but it is known to have occurred at least 3. Once life had appeared, the process of evolution by natural selection resulted in the development of ever-more diverse life forms.

Species that were unable to adapt to the changing environment and competition from other life forms became extinct. However, the fossil record retains evidence of many of these older species.

Current fossil and DNA evidence shows that all existing species can trace a continual ancestry back to the first primitive life forms.

When basic forms of plant life developed the process of photosynthesis the sun's energy could be harvested to create conditions which allowed for more complex life forms.

The incorporation of smaller cells within larger ones resulted in the development of yet more complex cells called eukaryotes.

With the ozone layer absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation , life colonized the surface of Earth. The first form of life to develop on the Earth were microbes, and they remained the only form of life until about a billion years ago when multi-cellular organisms began to appear.

They include Bacteria , Fungi , Archaea , and Protista. These life forms are found in almost every location on the Earth where there is liquid water, including in the Earth's interior.

The combination of a high mutation rate and a horizontal gene transfer [69] ability makes them highly adaptable, and able to survive in new environments, including outer space.

However, some microorganisms are pathogenic and can post health risk to other organisms. Originally Aristotle divided all living things between plants, which generally do not move fast enough for humans to notice, and animals.

In Linnaeus ' system, these became the kingdoms Vegetabilia later Plantae and Animalia. Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.

However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts. Bacterial life is sometimes included in flora, [71] [72] and some classifications use the term bacterial flora separately from plant flora.

Among the many ways of classifying plants are by regional floras , which, depending on the purpose of study, can also include fossil flora , remnants of plant life from a previous era.

People in many regions and countries take great pride in their individual arrays of characteristic flora, which can vary widely across the globe due to differences in climate and terrain.

Regional floras commonly are divided into categories such as native flora and agricultural and garden flora , the lastly mentioned of which are intentionally grown and cultivated.

Some types of "native flora" actually have been introduced centuries ago by people migrating from one region or continent to another, and become an integral part of the native, or natural flora of the place to which they were introduced.

This is an example of how human interaction with nature can blur the boundary of what is considered nature. Another category of plant has historically been carved out for weeds.

Though the term has fallen into disfavor among botanists as a formal way to categorize "useless" plants, the informal use of the word "weeds" to describe those plants that are deemed worthy of elimination is illustrative of the general tendency of people and societies to seek to alter or shape the course of nature.

Similarly, animals are often categorized in ways such as domestic , farm animals , wild animals , pests , etc.

Animals as a category have several characteristics that generally set them apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and usually multicellular although see Myxozoa , which separates them from bacteria, archaea , and most protists.

They are heterotrophic , generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae. They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls.

With a few exceptions—most notably the two phyla consisting of sponges and placozoans —animals have bodies that are differentiated into tissues.

These include muscles , which are able to contract and control locomotion, and a nervous system , which sends and processes signals.

There is also typically an internal digestive chamber. The eukaryotic cells possessed by all animals are surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins.

This may be calcified to form structures like shells , bones , and spicules , a framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganized during development and maturation, and which supports the complex anatomy required for mobility.

Although humans comprise only a minuscule proportion of the total living biomass on Earth, the human effect on nature is disproportionately large.

Because of the extent of human influence, the boundaries between what humans regard as nature and "made environments" is not clear cut except at the extremes.

Even at the extremes, the amount of natural environment that is free of discernible human influence is diminishing at an increasingly rapid pace.

The development of technology by the human race has allowed the greater exploitation of natural resources and has helped to alleviate some of the risk from natural hazards.

In spite of this progress, however, the fate of human civilization remains closely linked to changes in the environment.

There exists a highly complex feedback loop between the use of advanced technology and changes to the environment that are only slowly becoming understood.

Humans have contributed to the extinction of many plants and animals. Humans employ nature for both leisure and economic activities.

The acquisition of natural resources for industrial use remains a sizable component of the world's economic system.

Agriculture was first adopted around the 9th millennium BCE. Ranging from food production to energy, nature influences economic wealth.

Although early humans gathered uncultivated plant materials for food and employed the medicinal properties of vegetation for healing, [76] most modern human use of plants is through agriculture.

The clearance of large tracts of land for crop growth has led to a significant reduction in the amount available of forestation and wetlands , resulting in the loss of habitat for many plant and animal species as well as increased erosion.

Beauty in nature has historically been a prevalent theme in art and books, filling large sections of libraries and bookstores. That nature has been depicted and celebrated by so much art, photography, poetry, and other literature shows the strength with which many people associate nature and beauty.

Reasons why this association exists, and what the association consists of, are studied by the branch of philosophy called aesthetics. Beyond certain basic characteristics that many philosophers agree about to explain what is seen as beautiful, the opinions are virtually endless.

An early tradition of landscape art began in China during the Tang Dynasty — The tradition of representing nature as it is became one of the aims of Chinese painting and was a significant influence in Asian art.

Although natural wonders are celebrated in the Psalms and the Book of Job , wilderness portrayals in art became more prevalent in the s, especially in the works of the Romantic movement.

British artists John Constable and J. Turner turned their attention to capturing the beauty of the natural world in their paintings.

Before that, paintings had been primarily of religious scenes or of human beings. William Wordsworth 's poetry described the wonder of the natural world, which had formerly been viewed as a threatening place.

Increasingly the valuing of nature became an aspect of Western culture. A common classical idea of beautiful art involves the word mimesis , the imitation of nature.

Also in the realm of ideas about beauty in nature is that the perfect is implied through perfect mathematical forms and more generally by patterns in nature.

As David Rothenburg writes, "The beautiful is the root of science and the goal of art, the highest possibility that humanity can ever hope to see".

Some fields of science see nature as matter in motion, obeying certain laws of nature which science seeks to understand. For this reason the most fundamental science is generally understood to be " physics "—the name for which is still recognizable as meaning that it is the " study of nature ".

Matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed. It constitutes the observable universe.

The visible components of the universe are now believed to compose only 4. The remainder is believed to consist of The behaviour of matter and energy throughout the observable universe appears to follow well-defined physical laws.

These laws have been employed to produce cosmological models that successfully explain the structure and the evolution of the universe we can observe.

The mathematical expressions of the laws of physics employ a set of twenty physical constants [82] that appear to be static across the observable universe.

Outer space, also simply called space , refers to the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies.

Outer space is used to distinguish it from airspace and terrestrial locations. There is no discrete boundary between Earth's atmosphere and space, as the atmosphere gradually attenuates with increasing altitude.

Outer space within the Solar System is called interplanetary space , which passes over into interstellar space at what is known as the heliopause.

Outer space is sparsely filled with several dozen types of organic molecules discovered to date by microwave spectroscopy , blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang and the origin of the universe, and cosmic rays , which include ionized atomic nuclei and various subatomic particles.

There is also some gas, plasma and dust , and small meteors. Additionally, there are signs of human life in outer space today, such as material left over from previous manned and unmanned launches which are a potential hazard to spacecraft.

Some of this debris re-enters the atmosphere periodically. Although Earth is the only body within the solar system known to support life, evidence suggests that in the distant past the planet Mars possessed bodies of liquid water on the surface.

At present though, most of the water remaining on Mars is frozen. If life exists at all on Mars, it is most likely to be located underground where liquid water can still exist.

Conditions on the other terrestrial planets, Mercury and Venus , appear to be too harsh to support life as we know it.

But it has been conjectured that Europa , the fourth-largest moon of Jupiter , may possess a sub-surface ocean of liquid water and could potentially host life.

Astronomers have started to discover extrasolar Earth analogs — planets that lie in the habitable zone of space surrounding a star , and therefore could possibly host life as we know it.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Nature disambiguation. For other uses, see Natural disambiguation.

Natural, physical, or material world and its phenomena. Shaki Waterfall , Armenia. Bachalpsee in the Swiss Alps.

A winter landscape in Lapland , Finland. Lightning strikes during the eruption of the Galunggung volcano , West Java , in Nature timeline. This box: view talk edit.

Matter-dominated era. Accelerated expansion. Single-celled life. Multicellular life. Dark Ages. Earliest stars. Earliest galaxy. Omega Centauri. Andromeda Galaxy.

Milky Way spirals. Alpha Centauri. Earliest life. Earliest oxygen. Atmospheric oxygen. Sexual reproduction.

Cambrian explosion. Earliest mammals. Earliest apes. Schelling's Naturphilosophie was a way in which he worked himself out of the tutelage of Fichte, with whom he quarrelled decisively towards the end of the s.

More than that, however, it brought him within the orbit of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , both intellectually and as a direct consequence of Goethe's sympathetic attitude by a relocation; and it broke with basic Kantian tenets.

Iain Hamilton Grant writes:. Schelling's postkantian confrontation with nature itself begins with the overthrow of the Copernican revolution [ Schelling held that the divisions imposed on nature, by our ordinary perception and thought, do not have absolute validity.

They should be interpreted as the outcome of the single formative energy which is the soul or inner aspect of nature.

In other words he was a proponent of a variety of organicism. The dynamic series of stages in nature, the forms in which the ideal structure of nature is realized, are matter, as the equilibrium of the fundamental expansive and contractive forces; light, with its subordinate processes magnetism, electricity, and chemical action ; organism, with its component phases of reproduction, irritability and sensibility.

The continual change presented to us by experience , taken together with the thought of unity in productive force of nature, leads to the conception of the duality through which nature expresses itself in its varied products.

In the introduction to the Ideen he argues against dogmatism , in the terms that a dogmatist cannot explain the organic; and that recourse to the idea of a cosmic creator is a feature of dogmatic systems imposed by the need to explain nature as purposive and unified.

Beiser divides up the mature form of Schelling's Naturphilosophie into the attitudes of: [11]. Beiser notes how Naturphilosophie was first a counterbalance to Wissenschaftslehre , and then in Schelling's approach became the senior partner.

After that, it was hardly to be avoided that Schelling would become an opponent of Fichte, having been a close follower in the early s. We are able to apprehend and represent nature to ourselves in the successive forms which its development assumes, since it is the same spirit of which we become aware in self-consciousness, though here unconsciously.

The variety of its forms is not imposed on it externally, since there is no external teleology in nature. Nature is a self-forming whole, within which only natural explanations can be sought.

The function of Naturphilosophie is to exhibit the ideal as springing from the real, not to deduce the real from the ideal. Criticism of Naturphilosophie has been widespread, over two centuries.

Schelling's theories, however influential in terms of the general culture of the time, have not survived in scientific terms. Like other strands of speculation in the life sciences , in particular, such as vitalism , they retreated in the face of experiment, and then were written out of the history of science as Whig history.

But critics were initially not scientists a term not used until later ; rather they came largely from within philosophy and Romantic science , a community including many physicians.

Typically, the retrospective views of scientists of the 19th century on "Romantic science" in general erased distinctions:. Scientific criticism in the nineteenth century took hardly any notice of the distinctions between Romantic, speculative and transcendental, scientific and aesthetic directions.

One outspoken critic was the chemist Justus von Liebig , who compared Naturphilosophie with the Black Death. Isaiah Berlin summed up the reasons why Naturphilosophie had a wide-ranging impact on views of art and artists:.

Fichte was very critical of the opposition set up in Schelling's Naturphilosophie to his own conception of Wissenschaftslehre.

In that debate, Hegel then intervened, largely supporting his student friend Schelling, with the work usually called his Differenzschrift , the Differenz des Fichteschen und Schellingschen Systems der Philosophie The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's System of Philosophy ; a key publication in his own philosophical development, his first book, it was published in September Schelling's Absolute was left with no other function than that of removing all the differences which give form to thought.

The criticisms of Fichte, and more particularly of Hegel in the Preface to the Phenomenology of Spirit , pointed to a defect in the conception of the Absolute as mere featureless identity.

It was ridiculed by Hegel as "the night in which all cows are black. Ignaz Paul Vitalis Troxler , a follower of Schelling, later broke with him.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the historic branch of metaphysics, see Natural philosophy. See also: History of metaphysical realism.

Main article: Romanticism in science. Snow, Schelling and the end of Idealism , p. Leipzig: Veit. Miller Phenomenology of Spirit.

Motilal Banarsidass Publ. Phänomenologie des Geistes in German.

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